Selección de Tesis Académicas sobre Boullosa

68. Lore Callewaert, Carmen Boullosa en busca de la identidad mexicana: hacia un análisis de su novelística a la luz de la nueva novela histórica. Universiteit Gent, Master, 2010.

67. Ayala-Gilot, Yelitza, La imagen del agua en Pedro Páramo, de Juan Rulfo, “Chac Mool”, de Carlos Fuentes y Duerme, de Carmen Boullosa: la corporeidad de una identidad líquida, Universidad de Puerto Rico, Recinto Universitario de Mayagüez, 2010.

66. Juan Carlos Moraga, La otra mano de Lepanto de Carmen Boullosa: en busca del texto transatlántico. MA, San Diego State University, 89 pp, 2009.

65. Rachel Elise Schlegel, Representations of New York City in CarmenBoullosa's fiction, M.A., UNIVERSITY OF WYOMING, 2009, 75 pages; 1470703, University of Wyoming. 2009

64. Chantelle Hug, La sangre y el disfraz: identidad en Duerme y La otra mano de Lepanto. University of Calgary, PHD. 2011.

63. Bernal, Alejandra, MA. “El imperativo de la memoria cultural en Cielos de la Tierra de Carmen Boullosa” (2010 – 2011) . MA. MA Research Paper Director, Jorge Carlos Guerrero. Ottawa University.

62. Biasetti, Giada, Ph.D.,El poder subversivo de la nueva novela historica femenina sobre la conquista y la colonizacion: La centralizacion de la periferia University of Florida, 2009, 203 pages; 3429120, Advisor: Andres Avellaneda

61. Abelina Landin Vargas, Memoria e identidad en Duerme de Carmen Boullosa, Universidad de Colima, 2009.

60. Yolanda Melgar Pernías, Los Bildungsromane de Carmen Boullosa y Sandra Cisneros: estudio comparativo, PhD Thesis, University College Dublin, 2008.

59. Carolyn Wolfenzon Niego, A discourse repeated: Latin American novels entangled in history, Ph.D., Cornell University, 2009, 254 pages; AAT 3362606

58. Julianna Laufenberg Gallardo, Particulas revoltosas: La infancia en la literatura fantastica mexicana del siglo xx, Ph.D., University of Virginia, 2009, 228 pages; AAT 3364870

57. Diana Sofía Sánchez Hernández, Cielos de la Tierra: El desencanto de la Historia y las posibilidades de la escritura, Tesis para obtener el grado de Maestro en Letras Mexicanas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, (2008). El estudio presentado en este trabajo parte de dos premisas importantes: Primero, considerar la inclusión de la mujer, no sólo como sujeto activo de la historia sino también como intérprete, crítico y reconstructor de la misma, lo que permite la posibilidad de encontrar en la propuesta narrativa de Boullosa tanto una nueva forma de escribir el pasado como una nueva visión de lo que es la otredad en el caso particular del indígena y a su vez, del sujeto femenino. Segundo, tomar como un hecho que la revisión histórica presentada en Cielos de la Tierra no parte solamente de la nostalgia, sino que implica un proceso de autoconocimiento y a la vez, de comprensión del otro. Ambos puntos son vistos a partir de un cuestionamiento de las relaciones de poder entre los géneros, las diferentes razas y clases sociales del México contemporáneo. De esta forma, en el estudio minucioso de Cielos de la Tierra se subraya la escritura como un medio no sólo de conservación, sino de recuperación de la memoria y construcción de la identidad individual y colectiva; se puntualiza en cómo la historia personal de los grupos marginados crean una “contramemoria”, con lo que se evidencia el desencanto de la historia oficial cuyos recuentos del pasado eliminan la memoria del sujeto subalterno. Por lo anterior, la novela es abordada a partir de los estudios de la posmodernidad, la poscolonialidad y los estudios de género. Con esta amplitud teórica, se pretende agotar los sentidos posibles de interpretación y análisis; sin embargo, ésta es sólo una propuesta de lectura y no rechaza ni excluye la existencia de otras que se han generado a partir de la publicación de Cielos de la Tierra hasta la actualidad.

56. Charles D. Hatfield, Rethinking difference in the Americas: Race, culture, history, memory, Ph.D., The Johns Hopkins University, 2007, 143 pages; AAT 3240722

55. Eduardo Abud Martinez, La re-visión de la historia en la ficción de mujeres Latinoamericanas: Isabel Allende, Gioconda Belli, Carmen Boullosa y Ana Miranda. Ph.D., University of Arizona, 2008, 247 pages; AAT 3306715
La re-visión de la Historia en la ficción de mujeres latinoamericanas:. sabel Allende, Gioconda Belli, Carmen Boullosa y Ana Miranda analiza cuatro obras representativas del corpus de nuevas novelas históricas latinoamericanas, de acuerdo a las características formuladas por Seymour Menton, escritas por mujeres, contrastándolas con dos novelas escritas por hombres; La campaña , de Carlos Fuentes, y Maluco , de Napoleón Barcino Ponce de León, para determinar si existen suficientes elementos comunes diferenciadores que justifiquen una clasificación independiente dentro de la nueva novela histórica.
El apoyo teórico que se utilizó para el análisis de las obras aquí mencionadas fue los postulados desarrollados por la critica feminista latinoamericana, principalmente los de Lucía Guerra-Cunningham, Sara Castro-Klarén y Elodia Xavier. Se recurrió también como auxiliares en el análisis a la narratología, los conceptos de Jacques Derrida para la descontrucción de los mitos culturales de la feminidad, así como, los conceptos literarios elaborados por Mijail Bajtin de heteroglosia, polifonía, parodia, y lo carnavalesco.
En el análisis de las obras se encontraron suficientes características diferenciadoras que justificarían su clasificación en una categoría diferente dentro de la nueva novela histórica, comprobando la hipótesis planteada. Entre las principales se encuentran: (1) La transgresión del discurso tradicional patriarcal que rompe con la dependencia y subordinación al hombre, utilizando un discurso propio diferente al patriarcal, y exponiendo libremente lo que fue silenciado u olvidado en la historiografía oficial. (2) La trasmisión, a través de los relatos, de la Weltanschauung de la mujer, confrontándola a la visión masculina del mundo, la cual se equipara, aun hoy en día, a la conciencia humana como verdad absoluta. (3) La inscripción del cuerpo en el texto, con lo que la mujer trasciende los antiguos tabúes, haciendo mención directa de su sexualidad, mostrando explícitamente una carga libidinal específica donde los tabúes concernientes a las funciones biológicas y psíquicas del cuerpo femenino son tratados abiertamente. (4) El uso preponderante de la primera persona y el tono confesional intimista donde la protagonista busca a través del autoconocimiento la condición de sujeto que le ha sido tan frecuentemente negada en la sociedad falocrática en la que se encuentra inserta.

54. Inés Ferrero Candenas, Gendering the Marvelous: Strategies of Response in Remedios Varo, Elena Garro and Carmen Boullosa, PhD, Edimburg University, 2007

53. Glenda L Bermúdez Rivera, La presencia del narrador en la novela Duerme de Carmen Boullosa:  Una propuesta pedagógica, Ph.D., Universidad de Puerto Rico, Recinto de Río Piedras.

52. Margarita López López,   Las voces subversivas en la novelística de Carmen Boullosa.  Ph.D., University of California, Irvine, 2007, 163 pages; AAT 3282802
La novelística de Carmen Boullosa es muestra de la literatura postmoderna y el pensamiento mexicanos que desde la década de 1980 llegan a representar un nuevo realismo. Boullosa traza su concepción del mundo, apuntalando problemas profundos que le preocupan (la conservación de México y del universo) y desliando la dualidad del lenguaje para exponer discursos de autoridad como instrumentos de represión y opresión, con el fin de abordar una conciencia de igualdad psicológica y sociopolítica de los sexos. Esta disertación analiza las novelas de la infancia, Mejor desaparece, ¡Que viva! y Antes, como textos cuyo carácter fantástico devela espacios intersticiales como lugares (1) de marginación del "Otro" silenciado, y (2) de potencialidad dialógica para la subversión. El análisis de las novelas históricas, Llanto. Novelas imposibles, San vacas, somos puercos y Duerme, atiende a la historicidad (1) para instaurar la función social de la historiografía como un discurso para explorar problemas y preocupaciones profundas sobre el individuo y (2) para crear un espacio discursivo para el "Otro". Se postula un valor político de las voces heteróclitas en este discurso boullosiano, manifestado como VIII (1) cuestionamiento y subversión de la ideología colonialista; (2) socavamiento de la historia oficial; y (3) (re)escritura y (re)invención del discurso historiográfico oficial. Advirtiendo la trascendencia del lenguaje y partiendo de una visión utópica hacia el futuro, se hace una exploración de la identidad mexicana en las novelas utópicas La Milagrosa y Cielos de la Tierra. Los protagonistas representativos del "Otro" se inscriben en el proceso mismo de la representación, sustrayéndose del confinamiento a causa de su género y de la polarización sexual. A través de una diversidad de voces subversivas femeninas y masculinas, se produce un discurso andrógino inclusivo en que el individuo opta libremente por modos de comportamiento antes asignados sólo a uno u otro sexo. Las novelas de Boullosa se estudian como textos postmodernos que subvierten los géneros narrativas tradicionales y recuperan el lenguaje dándole un génesis discursivo, historiográfico y literario transtemporal que explora la descolonización del "Otro" y produce un discurso andrógino o concepto de totalidad del Sujeto, con sus múltiples manifestaciones masculinas y femeninas.

51. Terry Ellen Seymour , Sacrificial rituals: Eroticism, literature, and the conquest of Mexico. Ph.D., Columbia University, 2007, 249 pages; AAT 3266676
This thesis examines how Gustavo Sainz's Fantasmas aztecas , Carmen Boullosa's Llanto , and Carlos Fuentes's El naranjo rework the history of the conquest of Mexico. Their abundant allusions to sacrificial rituals, combined with the use of transgressive eroticism and grotesque images of mutilation, point to the influence of Georges Bataille.
The Introduction deals with the traditional link between eroticism and the Mexican conquest as embodied by la Malinche and argues that Bataille's ideas on eroticism and sacrificial ritual helped the Mexican writers rework the myth of national origins.
The second chapter examines the presentation of the conquest in Fantasmas aztecas as a conflict between Catholicism and Aztec human sacrifice, as well as between reason and eroticism. Through the metaphor of sacrificial dismemberment, the goddess Coyolxauhqui comes to represent a parodic and critical attitude that is presented as fundamentally Mexican. Llanto uses Aztec mythology and the history of the conquest to create a tale that is also a healing ritual. Chapter three shows that in the novel, Boullosa presents literature as a destructive ritual, but rejects Bataille's association of eroticism with violence.
In chapter four, I study two novellas from El naranjo that present the transmission of the Spanish language to Mexico as the foundation of Mexican culture: Las dos orillas and Apolo y las putas Las dos orillas deals with the birth of Mexican Spanish through a violent, erotic encounter, while Apolo y las putassuggests that in the modern world this eroticized form of Spanish can function as a form of resistance to outside forces.
In the conclusion, I argue that although Bataille's ideas on eroticism are not the only surrealist or dissident surrealist influences on these authors, they play an important role in the reworking of conquest history.

50. James M., Griesse, Utopia and postmodernism in recent Latin American fiction. Ph.D., The Catholic University of America, 2007, 187 pages; AAT 3257627
The concept of utopia has been a dominant force in the collective Latin American psyche since the era of colonization. Utopian desires have manifested themselves not only in the political and social realms in Latin America but also in its literature. This dissertation continues the discussion of utopia through a focus on Latin American literature written during the postmodern era. According to Jean-François Lyotard's famous definition of postmodernism--"incredulity toward metanarratives"--we can no longer trust grand narratives such as Marxism that promise to create utopian societies. The failure of socialist and revolutionary movements in Latin America and other regions of the world would seem to confirm this general pessimism.
The question I consider in this dissertation is how recent Latin American fiction has responded to this crisis. The following four novels written during the 1990's address this issue: La nada cotidiana by Zoé Valdés, Cielos de la tierra by Carmen Boullosa, Babel, el paraíso by Miguel Gutiérrez, and Waslala by Gioconda Belli. Each of these novels echoes, to varying degrees, the pessimism of postmodernism with respect to the viability of utopian projects. The theoretical framework of my analysis is grounded in Lyotard's explanation of the "postmodern condition," derived from Ludwig Wittgenstein's notion of language games, and postmodern/poststructuralist theories of language, all of which suggest how language itself is often implicated in the crisis of utopia. The postmodern theories that inform my discussion indicate how language use in society is not always the simple affair that many modern structuralists assumed it was. In fact, conversation and communication often lead to conflict or misunderstanding, which can threaten the construction or maintenance of a utopian society. However, despite the current crisis in utopian thought, I show that the idea of utopia is still useful and necessary as a tool to promote progressive social change and as a "directional reference" that can help orient future political projects toward the goal of constructing a more just society. I also demonstrate that language is not necessarily an insuperable hindrance to the creation of such a society.

49. Margarita Lopez Lopez. Las voces subversivas en la novelistica de Carmen Boullosa. Ph.D. 2007. pp. 163. University of California, Irvine; 0030
La novelística de Carmen Boullosa es muestra de la literatura postmoderna y el pensamiento mexicanos que desde la década de 1980 llegan a representar un nuevo realismo. Boullosa traza su concepción del mundo, apuntalando problemas profundos que le preocupan (la conservación de México y del universo) y desliando la dualidad del lenguaje para exponer discursos de autoridad como instrumentos de represión y opresión, con el fin de abordar una conciencia de igualdad psicológica y sociopolítica de los sexos.
Esta disertación analiza las novelas de la infancia, Mejor desaparece, ¡Que viva! y Antes, como textos cuyo carácter fantástico devela espacios intersticiales como lugares (1) de marginación del "Otro" silenciado, y (2) de potencialidad dialógica para la subversión. El análisis de las novelas históricas, Llanto. Novelas imposibles, San vacas, somos puercos y Duerme, atiende a la historicidad (1) para instaurar la función social de la historiografía como un discurso para explorar problemas y preocupaciones profundas sobre el individuo y (2) para crear un espacio discursivo para el "Otro". Se postula un valor político de las voces heteróclitas en este discurso boullosiano, manifestado como VIII -1) cuestionamiento y subversión de la ideología colonialista; (2) socavamiento de la historia oficial; y (3) (re)escritura y (re)invención del discurso historiográfico oficial.
Advirtiendo la trascendencia del lenguaje y partiendo de una visión utópica hacia el futuro, se hace una exploración de la identidad mexicana en las novelas utópicas La Milagrosa y Cielos de la Tierra. Los protagonistas representativos del "Otro" se inscriben en el proceso mismo de la representación, sustrayéndose del confinamiento a causa de su género y de la polarización sexual. A través de una diversidad de voces subversivas femeninas y masculinas, se produce un discurso andrógino inclusivo en que el individuo opta libremente por modos de comportamiento antes asignados sólo a uno u otro sexo.
Las novelas de Boullosa se estudian como textos postmodernos que subvierten los géneros narrativas tradicionales y recuperan el lenguaje dándole un génesis discursivo, historiográfico y literario transtemporal que explora la descolonización del "Otro" y produce un discurso andrógino o concepto de totalidad del Sujeto, con sus múltiples manifestaciones masculinas y femeninas.

48. James W., Jr. Gustafson, Hidden identity in the contemporary Latin American historical novel: The Conquest seen through the eyes of double agent characters. PhD. 2007. University of Nebraska - Lincoln; 0138, pp. 225. Adviser Catherine Nickel.
Many contemporary Latin American authors explore identity and re-write the past through narrative fiction, often looking to the violent beginnings of the Conquest and Colonization as a logical point of departure. This dissertation examines identity formation through fictional characters living with two identities in the following historical novels: El naranjo by Carlos Fuentes, Gonzalo Guerrero by Eugenio Aguirre, Duerme by Carmen Boullosa, Invasores del paraíso by Herminio Martínez, Memorias del Nuevo Mundo by Homero Aridjis, and Los perros del paraíso by Abel Posse.
Chapter One situates this study among the substantial critical corpus dedicated to Latin American novels of the Conquest and introduces a theoretical framework for analyzing double agent characters and identity formation in Latin American literature. Chapter Two contrasts the characterizations of Gonzalo Guerrero and Jerónimo de Aguilar in novels by Carlos Fuentes and Eugenio Aguirre with previous representations and analzyes the significance of the more complex, dual identity view of these two historical personages. Chapter Three examines dual identity as it relates to gender and sexuality. In Duerme a French woman cross-dresses as a Spanish soldier while in Invasores del paraíso, a young man with repressed homoerotic desires negotiates an identity between the typical machismo found among most members of his expedition and a group of openly practicing homosexuals. Chapter Four explores the complex identity of the Crypto-Jews, or secret Jews, and their persecution by the Inquistion in fifteenth century Spain and in the New World. Two characterizations of Christopher Columbus as a converso and possible Crypto-Jew in Los perros del paraíso and Memorias del Nuevo Mundo inform the examination of this phenomenon. Chapter Five looks at the broader issues related to identity formation in contemporary Latin America such as globalization and the creation of new types of readers.

47. Iliana Alcantar, En busca de la quimera mexicana: Nuevas nociones de identidad en la literature y performance contemporaneous. Ph.D., University of California, Los Angeles, 2006, 173 pages; AAT 3247461. Adviser A. John Skirius
This dissertation proposes that the search for a subjective identity emerges as a response and to contest the concept of a national identity, created in the beginning as part of intellectual and nationalistic discourses, as well as a political agenda. I argue that the construction of the Mexican identity, as seen in previous works of literature and the social sciences throughout the twentieth century, is merely an intellectual discourse, and call attention to the problems that arise due to this elitist production and reception. Instead, I propose a novel by Carmen Boullosa and the performance art of Astrid Hadad as an alternative to this type of hegemonic view. This study---interdisciplinary by nature---explores how the concept of identity is reinvented as a need of personal expression, as well as a result of cultural, sociopolitical, and economical changes that have taken place within the last decades in Mexico.In chapters one and two, the performance art of Astrid Hadad is examined in order to demonstrate how through her body, Hadad deconstructs and reconstructs the concepts of nationhood and Woman. In chapters three and four, Carmen Boullosa's novel, Cielos de la Tierra highlights the opposition of the personal and the feminine versus the intellectual and historical discourses. At the same time, the book offers the possibility of a third, alternative space from which individuals can inscribe themselves in those same discourses that tend to ignore them or homogenize them. The characters depicted in the novel, and those embodied by Hadad through her performance art, represent new notions of identity because they do not conform to the mold. On the contrary, they have been excluded from the hegemonic and patriarchal discourses of history and nation building. The concept of identity, as concluded in this study, and based on the works explored, is a perennial pursuit, a reevaluation of preexisting categories, and the continuous struggle for the recognition and inclusion of the difference.

46. Catalina Avina, The demythification of traditional female roles in Carmen Boullosa, PhD
UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA - LINCOLN, 2006. 3209278

45. Rosana Blanco-Cano, Dissident Mexican women: Textual and performative reconfigurations of national models of gender since 1970. 2006. Ph.D. pp. 318. Tulane University; 0235. Adviser Maureen Shea. his dissertation focuses on the work of contemporary Mexican women writers and performance artists who, from 1970 up to today, have created dissident cultural expressions that challenge the underlying logics of gender and nationality in the post-revolutionary cultural discourse. My analyses of the complex reality of Mexican women's cultural production require the use of theoretical frameworks that allow me to analyze the intersections among gender, social class, ethnicity, trans-nationalism, and globalization. From the 1970s, Mexican women writers and artists have challenged the monolithic discourse of mexicanidad by means of creating a radical body of works and styles. Polvo de Gallina Negra (Maris Bustamante and Mónica Mayer), Carmen Boullosa, Astrid Hadad, Sandra Cisneros and Petrona de la Cruz have created a dissident body of works that deal with the representation of plurality both in the experience of being Mexican and of being women. I argue that Mexican, Mayan and Chicana women culture producers contest the hegemonic and "national" conceptions of gender and nationality through three basic thematic and formal strategies: rewriting official history to recover marginalized feminine and indigenous identities; dislocating heterosexuality by daring to denaturalize "sacred motherhood"; and re-conceptualizing the cultural and territorial Mexican map by demonstrating how national discourses proclaim an artificial homogeneity and an imagined community. As I argue, the innovative stylistics in women's performance and art and literary production reconfigure the mythical and historical narrations about gender and nationality in Mexico, and propose within their works alternative models of women that overcome the reduced and binary gallery on feminine models in national life.

44. Jessica Noelle Burke, Bodies in transition: Identity and the writing process in the narrative of Carmen Boullosa, Ph.D., Princeton University, 2005, 199 pages; AAT 3188613. Advisor: Arcadio Díaz Quiñones.
This dissertation studies the relationship between body, identity and the writing process in the narrative work of the contemporary Mexican writer Carmen Boullosa. Boullosa uses the physical body as a metaphor for social identity in much of her work, and this study explores the relationship between representations of the physical body and the narrative corpus of Boullosa's fiction. By deconstructing our instituted notions of body, identity, and gender, Boullosa fragments both her characters' bodies as well as the "body" of the text, questioning traditional methods of presenting both. The particular and personal "histories" that she creates in her novels dialogue with and question the official History that often has excluded or silenced certain voices. Boullosa gives these marginalized groups a voice and a space from which they can express themselves. Chapter 1, "Dreadful Bodies," considers the treatment of childhood sexuality in Boullosa's early narrative work. Focusing on the author's first two novels, this chapter analyzes the function of the body in the formation of a notion of "self" and sexual identity in childhood and adolescence. Chapter 2, "Re-negotiating Colonial Bodies in Historiographic Metafiction," explores the different meanings attributed to colonial bodies--including those of women, children, slaves, prostitutes, pirates, and the indigenous people of the Americas--in fictitious plots that attempt to fill in the "gaps" in historical narrative. Central to discussion is the writing process in the fields of history and literature, and the problem of representation. The third and final chapter, "Consuming the Other," confronts fascinating cases of cannibalism, vampirism and other forms of consumption in Boullosa's fiction. The borders of the body are threatened, violated, blurred, erased, and yet paradoxically reinforced through incorporation of the "Other." Together these three chapters present a new focus on Boullosa's narrative work--one that considers the body in transition. The physical, metaphorical and textual bodies of Boullosa's narrative are works in progress, requiring the active participation of the reader in the construction of their meaning.

43. Kseniya A. Vinarov, La novela detectivesca posmoderna de metaficcion: Cuatro ejemplos mexicanos (Spanish text, David Toscana, Luis Arturo Ramos, Carmen Boullosa, Jorge Volpi), PhD, UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, RIVERSIDE, 2005, 198 pages. 3179410

42. Ramon Trejo Tellez, Desestilizacion del sujeto en la narrativa mexicana contemporanea: Un acercamiento centrifugo-centripeta (Spanish text, Carmen Boullosa, Maria Luisa Puga, Barbara Jacobs), PhD, UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN, 2005, 161 pages. 3185981

41. David Buyze, The Aftertastes of Colonialism: Latin Americanism and Cultural Meaning, Supervisor: Rosa Sarabia, PhD, UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO, 2005.

40. Ute Seydel, Narrar historia (s): la ficcionalización de temas históricos por las escritoras mexicanas Elena Garro, Rosa Beltrán y Carmen Boullosa, PhD, UNIV. POSTDAM, Germany, 2004.

39. Maria G. Akrabova, Sheherazada en el espejo: Una aproximacion a lo fantástico femenino (Spanish text, Isabel Allende, Chile, Carmen Boullosa, Mexico, Almudena Grandes, Cristina Fernandez Cubas, Spain), PhD, THE UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS, 2004, 248 pages. 3148862

38. Maria Victoria Albornoz, El canibalismo como metafora de incorporacion y traduccion cultural: Perspectivas desde hispanoamerica (Spanish text, Jose Eustasio Rivera, Colombia, Mario Vargas Llosa, Peru, Juan Jose Saer, Argentina, Carmen Boullosa, Mexico, Ruth Behar), PhD, WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY, 2004, 284 pages, AAT 3139821

37. Julie Lynn Hempel, Faces, bodies, and spaces: Differential identity construction in Mexicana and Chicana narrative, PhD, UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN, 2004, pp. 238.
Examines the intersections and imbrication of race, ethnicity, class, gender, and sexuality in the narrative of five Mexican women writers and two Chicana writers. The aim of this border approach is to problematize manifestations of difference in Mexican society through compilation and analysis of writers', characters', and readers' voices. I have chosen works by five contemporary Mexican women writers (Guadalupe Loaeza, Ethel Krauze, Rosamaría Roffiel, Carmen Boullosa, and Sylvia Molina) and two Chicanas (Erlinda Gonzales-Berry and Sandra Cisneros) who examine simultaneously class, ethnicity, gender, and, at times, sexual preference. These narrative works offer a border reading that problematizes difference, subjectivity, and social spaces. The analysis of these pluralistic subjectivities, and the literary mechanisms used to create and frame them, form the core of this dissertation, one from which I cast a more transformative critical tool to be used in understanding the inherently multiple and heterogeneous identity of the postmodern subject. The theoretical underpinnings of this study are those which grapple with the interweaving of gender, class, and ethnicity in the creation of identity. Such a notion is grounded in the concept of the “rizoma”; as conceived by Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari, and strives to reflect the complexity of the connections and negotiations between multiple elements of subjectivity and different subjects. Yet, beyond this general framework, the theories which inform the textual analysis of this study further contribute to a transnational dialogue between Latin America, the U.S., and Europe. Concepts of masking and face developed by Rosario Castellanos and Octavio Paz are juxtaposed with those posited by Mikhail Bakhtin and Gloria Anzaldúa. Severo Sarduy's writings on the body dialogue with those by Judith Butler and José Esteban Muñoz. And finally, Jessica Benjamin's and Setha Low's ideas of space converse with those of Gloria Anzalúa and Pat Mora. By means of an integration of literary and audience analysis, this study attempts to elicit a theoretical model uniquely capable of evoking a broader and more complex view of subjectivity than has been attempted in studies to date, thus contributing potentially groundbreaking research to a fecund yet relatively unexamined literary corpus.

36. Maria Sol Colina Trujillo, Nation and narration: Feminine identity reconstruction in Angeles Mastretta (Spanish text, Laura Esquivel and Carmen Boullosa), PhD
UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI - COLUMBIA, 2003, 142 pages. 3099615. Advisor: Marvin Louise.
Each of the texts included in this study highlights a specific stage in what I argue is a shared narrative project: claiming the power of interpretation by recuperating silenced or marginalized subjects through the reconstruction of the discourse of history and ultimately, the identity within a nation. I decided to limit my study to the country of Mexico during the nineties and restrict it to four novels: Mal de amores 1996 ( Sick of Love ), La Milagrosa 1993 ( The Miracle Worker ), La ley del amor 1995 ( Law of Love ) and Cielos de la tierra 1997 ( Heavens on Earth ). Rather than writing female characters in metonymic relations to government or nations, the Mexican women writers chose to develop alternate narratives and spaces that imagine new roles for female citizens in the context of postcolonial politics. The women writers' project is not to build their own foundational fictions, rather to question the lack of recognition of political participation and the female experience as a paradigm for history. Every novel represents different stages on the project. Mastretta and Boullosa deconstruct paradigms of identity and nationhood through the careful creation of education, in the case of Emilia in Mal de amores , and deconstruction of images of both religion and nation in the case of the Miracle Worker . Against the violence and injustice of the Mexico of the nineties, the female writers chose to implement a historical discourse to safeguard the possibility of change, of reconstructing the self beyond the official history. Esquivel as well as Boullosa try to integrate to their narratives the silenced and marginalized voices. The discourses of the novels studied here are concerned with the accurate register of historical events by adding the individual experience. The act of writing is a claim to the power of interpretation of marginalized groups such as women and Indians. Citizenship is related to the act of writing and interpreting history. Mexican women writers, The feminine becomes political in the narrative of Angeles Mastretta, Laura Esquivel and Carmen Boullosa. Their discourses offer a more elaborate form of female citizenship.

35. Juli Ann Kroll, 'Vampires without appetites': Monstrous embodiments of gender, sexuality, and nation in the texts of Carmen Boullosa (Mexico), PhD, UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA, 2003, 373 pages. 3098606

34. Stephanie Leigh Vague, A life of one's own: Mexican fictions of female development (Carmen Boullosa, Angeles Mastretta, Maria Luisa Puga), PhD, THE UNIVERSITY OF IOWA, 2003, 211 pages. 3114403 Advisor, Balderston, Daniel
A Life of One's Own is a critical study of the evolution of the bildungsroman genre in contemporary Mexican women's fiction. The study considers the ways in which three current authors challenge the boundaries of the novel of development as they offer in-depth looks at the process of self realization in Mexican female protagonists. Angeles Mastretta, Carmen Boullosa, and María Luisa Puga have drawn from trends in Mexican and Latin American literature as well as from national history and more recent social movements in Mexico to produce a body of literature that reflects the unique experiences of female self-realization in late twentieth century Mexico. Using a multidisciplinary approach that includes post-structuralist feminist theory, current trends in psychoanalysis, and cultural studies, A Life of One's Own offers a close and critical reading of six novels by these authors that offer distinct written representations of female self-realization in Mexico: Arráncame la vida and Mal de amores by Mastretta; Antes and Treinta años by Boullosa; and Pánico o peligro and La viuda by Puga.
Until recently, the representation of female identity in Mexican narrative was limited in scope, focusing primarily on superficial mythical images of the Virgin of Guadalupe or La Malinche, violated mother of the Mexican nation. The increased social awareness of the late 1960s and 1970s produced an atmosphere in which women became more aware of social movements throughout the world that challenged accepted norms concerning women's roles in society. Simultaneously authors in Mexico, including Rosario Castellanos, Elena Poniatowska, and Julieta Campos published collections of essays, poetry and novels that provided examples of written representation of female protagonists that went beyond the pre-existing norms of female identity in earlier Mexican literature to offer more fully developed images of women in writing. Mastretta, Boullosa, and Puga appear to have continued this trend expanding not only the concept of identity in the six novels of this study, but also the boundaries of the bildungsroman genre.

33. Susanna Regazzoni, Carmen Boullosa: de la poesía al Bildungsroman, UNIVERSITÁ CA'FOSCARI VENEZIA, Tesi di Laurea, 2002-2003.

32. Erika Mueller, Kueste und Text. Das 'Empire' schreibt zurueck: Die Antwort der Calibane auf Kolonialismus und Moderne (Coast and Text: The 'Empire' writes Regresar. Caliban´s response to colonialism and modernity), UNIVERSITAET WIEN, Dr. phil., 2002 (deutsch). The purpose of this thesis is the analysis of the presence of colonialism and modernity in 20 th century Latinamerican and Caribbean (French, Spanish) island- literatures. I am applying the term colonialism not only in Edward Saids sense as specific form of exploitation and as consequence of European expansion, but also in a metaphorical way: as the occupation and colonisation of body, mind, the woman, nature, the Other by means of different discourses of European modernity such as science, technology and nation. The authors to be analysed are Adolfo Bioy Casares (Argentina), Carmen Boullosa (Mexico), Aimé Cesaire (Martinique), Laura Restrepo (Colombia), Abilio Estévez (Cuba), who choose to locate their narration on geographically existent islands. Through the islands as ideal space for colonisation, as not only a geographic reality but the symbol of colonialism, as ideal-space for occidental, white male desire and projection, the analysis shows the way colonialism is discussed in the "periphery". This interdisciplinary work is mainly focused on colonial and postcolonial discourse theory as well as on feminist theory and philosophy of science.

31. Irene Wenger, Die Darstellung der indigenen Thematik bei Carmen Boullosa (Llanto, Duerme, Cielos de la Tierra). Magistra der Philosophie. UNIVERSITÄT GRAZ, 2002.

30. Valerie Zukin, El cuerpo, el traje y el liquido vital: el juego de la construccion de genero en la narrativa femenina. BA, Haverford College, 2002. In analyzing the works: Desenganos amorosos, by Maria de Zayas ; Cola de lagartija, by Luisa Valenzuela ; and Duerme, by Carmen Boullosa, I demonstrate the gender narrative game. The three authors use the body, disguises and blood to build an interpretation of gender as social construction that challenges both postmodern interpretation and radical feminism. The authors find an equilibrium between the total deconstruction of gender and the importance of its construction for society.

29. Priska M.Ballmaier, Von der Möglichkeit, ICH zu sagen, Lebensentwürfe im Werk mexikanischer Autorinnen, Wissenschaftsverlag Dr. Josef Kovac, Hamburg, 2001, 274 pqges. ISBN, 3-8300-0371-4

28. Sabine Coudassot-Ramírez, Carmen Boullosa: Itinéraries d'une graphographe fantastique. Thèse pour obtenir le grade de Docteur de L'UNIVERSITÉ DE LA SORBONNE (Paris III), 365 pp, 2001.

27. Anna Forne, Textual piracy: A hypertext study of 'Son vacas, somos puercos' and 'El medico de los piratas' of Carmen Boullosa. Fildr, LUNDS UNIVERSITET (SWEDEN), 2001. The aim of this study is to examine the rewriting of the memoirs of the former pirate Alexander Olivier Exquemelin, Los Piratas de América, originally published in Amsterdam in 1678, which the Mexican writer Carmen Boullosa carries out in two recent novels, Son vacas, somos puercos and El médico de los piratas ... The dissertation concludes with the suggestion that Son vacas, somos puercos presents a hypertextual unfolding of the ideology of the pirate's brotherhood; that the greater subjective presence of the narrator-protagonist in the rewriting highlights the temporal discrepancy between the narration and the history, and consequently also implies a greater emphasis on the disagreement between the experiences of the protagonist in the past and the present knowledge of the narrator. Furthermore it is suggested that the diegesis originally described in Exquemelin's memoirs is nuanced by the inclusion or activation of women, African slaves and Indians. The idea that in Son vacas, somos puercos, the image of the pirate is transvalorized in constructive terms is also put forward…

26. Anna Reid, Historiographical and Political Discourses in the Work of Carmen Boullosa, PhD, KINGS COLLEGE, LONDON, 2000.

25. Huijulan Heinlein, Conjugarse en infinitivo -voz narrativa, identidad y memoria en las novelas de Carmen Boullosa, UNIVERSITÉ DE PARIS 3, SORBONNE NOUVELLE, Dir. M. le Prof. Claude Fell, 2000.

24. Barbara Rebecca Fick, Narrative transgression and disembodied voices: The reconstruction of identity in the novels of Carmen Boullosa (Mexico), PhD, THE UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE, 2000, 184 pp.
This study presents a postmodern-feminist analysis of Boullosa's nine novels published between 1987 and 1998. Boullosa's writing continues and adds to many of the innovations initiated by earlier twentieth-century authors in Latin America and, in this way, interrogates textual representation in the process of identity construction through an ongoing dialogue with the past and its literature. The present study examines the strategies employed by the author in order to engage a more active reader, present plural perspectives, and challenge established social and literary institutions. … Boullosa opens up textual space for the representation of other perspectives and a plurality of voices formerly marginalized by hegemonic discourses. Her writing presents a revision of the self and Mexican identity in the twentieth century…

23. Shigeko Mato, Locating Female Creation In A Hybrid Space: Carmen Boullosa's Trans-Liminal Narrative (Mexico); PhD, THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO, 2000, 167 pp.
The purpose of this study is to analyze how contemporary Mexican writer Carmen Boullosa challenges the traditional notion of women's writings in three of her narratives, Mejor desaparece (1987), Papeles irresponsables (1989), and La Milagrosa (1993). In these three narratives, Boullosa creates a hybrid space in which the dichotomies of female/home/private/mass culture and male/public/and culture are destabilized. … The final chapter concludes that Boullosa's trans-liminal narrative can subvert the fixity of traditional definitions and boundaries. Algunos aspectos de la metaficcion en dos novelas de Carmen Boullosa.

22. Lorena Monzon, Algunos aspectos de la metaficcion en dos novelas de Carmen Boullosa. MA, THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT EL PASO, 2000 El análisis de la técnica en Mejor desaparece y Duerme nos permitirá observar cómo algunas características de la metaficción influyen en la representación de la historia misma.

21. Corinne Machoud Nivon, Rituel de l'ecriture et metamorphoses du miroir : traductions au feminin (de et avec Carmen Boullosa). Thèse pour obtenir le grade de Docteur de L'UNIVERSITÉ DE LA SORBONNE (Paris III), 422 pp.

20. Leonor Cristina Costa Santos, The Quest For An Authentic Feminine Identity: Innovations In The Narrative by Clarice Lispector and Carmen Boullosa (Brazil, Mexico), PhD, UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO (CANADA), 2001. This doctoral dissertation is a study of the narrative techniques utilized by Clarice Lispector and Carmen Boullosa to overcome the socio-cultural bonds of language imposed on women in their respective cultures. In order to do so both authors approach the problematic of writing within a markedly patriarchal environment by subverting traditional narrative discourse. It is within this fluid narrative structure that feminine identity is explored from the philosophical perspective of alterity: to know one's self one must also know one's Other. Therefore, dialogue is the instrument through which there is potential for the discovery of identity and it is through a fragmented narrative structure that both Lispector and Boullosa provoke the reader to surpass limitations of prejudgements, semantic or otherwise. … Although the focus of this dissertation is on the process of conscientization of feminine identity it should be clear that both Boullosa's and Lispector's work incorporates the universality of the experience with the other and not the isolation of the self. Thus, the overall perspective of this study is not strictly speaking one of feminist criticism but a philosophical investigation of women's struggle for an authentic identity within a male-dominated environment that rejects self-expression by women outside the prescribed norms.

19. Maria Guadalupe Calatayud, (Con)fabulating facts: The politics of fantasy in the work of twentieth century Mexican women artists. Maria Novaro, Elena Garro, Frida Kahlo and Carmen Boullosa (Spanish text), PhD, THE FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY, 2000, 326 pages.
This dissertation shows that Fantasy is powerful, liberating and therefore dangerous to those who fear change. In Mexico, romantic courtship and seduction drive women into submission and then, paradoxically, attribute to them an irrational inclination towards romance. Contemporary Mexican women artists present us with images in which women seemingly play the game of romance and seduction with the ulterior purpose of subverting it. … I follow the female protagonists as they escape the romantic trap through fabulations and (con)fabulations. …The Miraculous (Con)fabulation of Carmen Boullosa, examines Boullosa's novel La Milagrosa, (The Miraculous One) and her play Cocinar hombres (Cooking Men). For this writer, the obvious consequence of women's fabulatory and (con)fabulatory powers is the total separation of men and women, and perhaps an end to all heterosexual relationships, as they are the source of the romantic trap.

18. Demetrio Anzaldo-González, Género y ciudad en la novela mexicana (Spanish text, Carlos Fuentes, José Emilio Pacheco, Carmen Boullosa, Luis Zapata, José Joaquín Blanco). PhD, UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, IRVINE, 2001. … el segundo capítulo pone en evidencia la subordinación de la mujer dentro de los centros urbanos recreados en Duerme y Cielos de la Tierra de Carmen Boullosa. En su narrativa, a través de Claire y Lear, se perciben los espacios vacíos que desestabilizan a la ciudad de los hombres…

17. Ying Han, La Subjetividad Femenina En La Narrativa Femenina de Mexico y China (1980--1995) (Spanish text), PhD, STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK AT STONY BROOK, 2001.
Since the eighties of last century, inspired by emerging world-wide feminist ideologies, increasing numbers of women writers in both Mexico and China began to write about their life experiences from their own perspectives. However, owing to different social, political and cultural Regresargrounds, especially the particular conditions for women in each country, these writers have shown different concerns and strategies in representing feminine subjectivities. In Mexico, where the primary concern is the domination of the system as much as the exploitation of their male counterparts, women writers have created characters who struggle for social identities, independence from family ties and traditional roles, and participation in the public sphere… Chapters One and Two present respectively the feminist movements of each country and the salient characteristics of women's writings. Chapter Three, focusing on two adolescent characters form Antes of Carmen Boullosa and La luz de los últimos días of Xu Xiaobin, illustrates women's psychological journey through a patriarchal world.

16. Emily Ann Hind, After Ours: Six Mexican Women Writers On Borrowed Time (Elena Garro, Rosario Castellanos, Silvia Molina, Ana Clavel, Carmen Boullosa, Sabina Berman), PhD, UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA, 2001. This dissertation examines innovative historical literature by Elena Garro, Rosario Castellanos, Silvia Molina, Carmen Boullosa, Sabina Berman, and Ana Clavel. Each author employs a unique approach to incorporate historical references in texts that also explore women's roles and twentieth-century Mexico. … Knowledge of the past proves more effective in Boullosa's Cielos de la Tierra, as life in literature rescues historically conscious characters from apocalypse. … these texts experiment with women protagonists who attempt the roles of writer and historia…

15. Myriam Osorio, Agencia femenina, agencia narrativa, PhD, UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN - MADISON, 2000, 280 pages. 9972791

14. Alicia Rico, Sociedades en transicion: La novela fantastica escrita por mexicanas y españolas en la decada de los ochenta, PhD, UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS, 2000 .
Muchos son los cambios ocurridos en las sociedades española y mexicana a partir de la década de los ochenta. Entre ellos el afianzamiento de una voz que se oye cada vez con más fuerza proveniente del sector femenino de la población. Las escritoras de ambos países se hacen eco de las exigencias compartidas para denunciar la perpetuación de sistemas obsoletos que no se adecúan a las necesidades de los tiempos. Las autoras incluidas en este estudio incorporan elementos fantásticos para crear una realidad distinta a la aceptada y plantear la diversidad. Independientemente de la nacionalidad de las creadoras, todas las novelas presentan la urgencia de redefinir la sociedad para abarcar a todos los individuos que la conforman. … En el segundo capítulo se analiza la novela Antes (1989) de Carmen Boullosa. Esta novela gira en torno a la infancia de la protagonista muerta y cómo sus reflexiones desde el más allá modifican su concepción de su familia.

13. Jeanne Marie Vaughn, The Latin American Subject Of Feminism: Unraveling The Threads Of Sexuality, Nationality, And Femaleness, PhD, UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SANTA CRUZ, 1999. This dissertation traces the constructions of traditional femininity in the context of contemporary Latin America and explores the problematization, deconstruction, and eventual renegotiation of those constructions by contemporary women writers in Mexico, Latin America, and the Caribbean... I argue that contemporary Latin American women's writing has an overarching concern with what it means to be a female subject, both in the psychoanalytic and social sense of the term. The first chapter explores attempts to formulate a Latin American female subject within three distinct moments in contemporary women's writing, and it involves novels from three different literary movements, La última niebla (1935), María Luisa Bombal; Los recuerdos del provenir (1963), Elena Garro; Antes (1989), Carmen Boullosa. … Each of the texts that I examine breaks ground or in some way advances feminist arguments.

12. Carrie Christine Chorba, Metaphors Of A Mestizo Mexico: New Narrative Rewritings Of The Conquest, PhD, BROWN UNIVERSITY, 1998.
This dissertation is a thematic analysis of the literary works of three Mexican authors which rewrite the sixteenth-century conquest in order to explore the beginnings of Mexican mestizaje in all its metaphorical manifestations. … . The textual analysis of Ignacio Solares's Nen, la inutil (1994), Carlos Fuentes's 'Las dos orillas' from El naranjo, o los circulos del tiempo (1993) and Carmen Boullosa's Llanto: novelas imposibles (1989) argues that the sixteenth-century conquest continues to provoke thought and debate about some of Mexico's most problematic constructions of its national identity… Each writer employs a markedly different narrative strategy to represent the beginnings of modern mexicanidad. Solares attempts a de-traumatization of the inception of mestizaje, Fuentes valorizes Mexico's Hispanic cultural roots, and Boullosa questions Mexico's mestizo identity through an epistemological analysis of conquest historiography.

11. Katharina Kayser, Historiografias y localizaciones subalternas en las novelas de Carmen Boullosa, PhD, UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON, 1998.
...an analysis of historical novels published between 1991 and 1997, Son vacas, somos puercos, Llantos: novelas imposibles, Duerme, and Cielos de la Tierra, "The main questions I address are the following: how can literature re-examine the positionality of the subaltern subject of the colonial past, in order to come to an understanding of its present (lack of) agency? Can there be a writing free from the colonizing enterprise and, if so, what are its premises? By what means is the literature examined here countering official history? Whose interests invest this literature, in contrast to the historical texts it fictionalizes? Can contemporary literature propose another concept of historiography and serve as an alternative model of representing history? I will discuss three major proposals towards a rethinking of history and its relationship to situating the subject: first, the intransparency of the writing subject, which calls for a problematization of the locus of speech; second, the representation of lack of closure through multiple approaches to 'history,' and third, a differentiation between event and discourse, proving that discourse conditions the positionality of the subaltern subject".

10. Virginia Ellen Bell, Narratives Of Treason: Postnational Historiographic Tactics And Late Twentieth-Century Fiction In The Americas, PhD, UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND COLLEGE PARK, 1997. This dissertation argues that many late twentieth-century publications in the Americas constitute postnational historiographic fiction. Postnational narratives challenge the authority of existing nations and experiment with historiographic form; they are narratives of treason… Chapter four compares Margaret Atwood's The Handmaid's Tale and Carmen Boullosa's Duerme/ (Sleeping Beauty) to discourse that produces a critical assessment of NAFTA. … My dissertation concludes with the suggestion that 'Literatures of the Americas' pay attention to works committed to cyclical narratives of change and conceptions of agency that defy the active/passive opposition.

9. Laura Estelle Pirott-Quintero, Hybrid Identities: The Embodiment Of Difference In Contemporary Latin American Narratives, PhD, BROWN UNIVERSITY, 1997.
… explores three contemporary Latin American narratives whose central themes--the explorations of alterity, social heterogeneity and articulations of pluricultural identities--revolve around the corporeal figure. In all three texts--Moacyr Scliar's O centauro no jardim (Brazil 1980), Carmen Boullosa's Duerme (Mexico 1994) and Diamela Eltit's El cuarto mundo (Chile 1988) --the protagonists, who are also the narrators, are engaged in at least a two-fold narration. … The three narratives posit an interpretive tool with which to consider central issues related to identity-formation: the figure of the 'hybrid body.' … Duerme, O centauro no jardim and El cuarto mundo address and participate in the Latin American 'postmodern' cultural climate by underscoring the importance of difference and alterity. In this regard, the texts are shaped by a democratizing impulse which deploys strategies of contestation in order to destabilize discourses of exclusion, and to expose homogenizing logics of power.

8. Origins In Latin American Literature, PHD, UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SANTA CRUZ, 1996
Works by Jorge Isaacs, Gabriela Mistral, Alejo Carpentier, Luis Pales Matos, Carmen Boullosa and others serve to demonstrate how the maternal is figurated metonymically and its loss is displaced and reenacted as loss of country, loss of other love objects, or castration. In order to examine the works and the workings of metonymy in a metonymic fashion and in order to avoid falling into the metaphoric fallacy that privileges singularity, this study allows for the play of heterogeneous materials in its format: considerations of the art of translation, of non-Latin American material, multiple columns, boxed citations, and examples that, while linked through particular associations, fall outside of a strict understanding of its purposes.

7. Sara La Setta Beyer, The Many Voices Of Carmen Boullosa, Ma, Miami University, 1996
… analyze several works of Mexican poet, playwright, short-story writer, and novelist Carmen Boullosa. First, applying the theory of Mikhail Bakhtin, I attempt to prove that Boullosa's narrative voice is dialogic. Second, since a female text is not only fathered but also mothered, I intend to examine Boullosa's texts to reveal the innovative and multi-faceted ways in which are parented--whether through traditions, official histories, training, family heritage, or other means. Finally, in the texts I have noted examples of androgyny, a state of mind and of body that incorporates the whole being, as June Singer describes. I intend to demonstrate that through Boullosa's self conscious, deliberate use of feminine and masculine voices, she achieves overall an androgynous voice.

6. Yolanda Flores, The drama of gender: feminist theater by women of the Americas (Assuncao, Leilah, Brazil, Lopez, Josefina, Latina, Boullosa, Carmen, Mexico, Torres Molina, Susana, Argentina,), PHD, CORNELL UNIVERSITY, 1995. … A historical investigation of Latin American women's involvement with the public sphere and of their access to interpretative power leads to a consideration of the nature of the dramatic genre in relation to women. A survey of the field of dramatic criticism and theories precedes a discussion of cultural politics. The plays examined--Lua nua by Leilah Assuncao (Brazil, 1987), Simply Mariia or the American Dream, by Josefina Lopez (U.S. Latina, 1988), ... Y a otra cosa mariposa, by Susana Torres Molina (Argentina, 1981), and Cocinar hombres by Carmen Boullosa (Mexico, 1987)--all exhibit a desire to deconstruct patriarchal notions of gendered roles and behavior, of compulsory heterosexuality, and of dramatic forms.

5. Choucino Ana Gloria Fernández, Radicalizar e interrogar los limites: poesía mexicana, 1970-1990. PHD, UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS, 1994. Some important trends in Mexican poetry of the 70's and 80's interrogate the romantic and modern tradition. Chapter one explains how the new poets are subverting traditional literary models. This causes intertextual play, allowing the reader to participate in the creation of the new text. Elva Macias, Carmen Boullosa, Vicente Quirarte y Gerardo Deniz use irony to subvert conventional texts.

4. Carrie Chorba, The Actualization of a Distant Past: Carmen Boullosa's Historiographic Metafiction, Master of Arts, BROWN UNIVERSITY, 1993.

3. Teresa Chapa, Contemporary Mexican Poetry: 'La Generacion Del Desengaño' (Bracho Coral, Boullosa Carmen, Castillo Ricardo, Blanco Alberto), PHD, UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS, 1992The Mexican poets born in the 1950s have added a new dimension to Mexico's rich poetic tradition. Their innovative use of language and their creation of strong and defiant speakers challenge both poetic and social conventions. Although each poet's defiant stance is unique, they all share common characteristics. All of these poets communicate social themes in an original manner by developing new ways of using language and perspective, extending beyond earlier Mexican social poetry. The work of the four poets included in this study, Coral Bracho, Carmen Boullosa, Ricardo Castillo and Alberto Blanco, exemplifies the different tendencies found among 'la generacion del desengaño.' Each of these poets, in his or her own way, has found a unique and subversive form of poetic expression… Carmen Boullosa's rebellious and forthright speakers intentionally undermine both social and poetic conventions as they search for their identity as women in a male-dominated world…

2. Roselyn Constantino, Resistant Creativity: Interpretative Strategies And Gender Representation In Contemporary Women's Writing In Mexico (Castellanos Rosario, Berman Sabina, Boullosa Carmen), PHD, ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY, 1992.
This study focuses on the efforts of three contemporary Mexican women writers--Rosario Castellanos (1925-1974), Sabina Berman (1951-), and Carmen Boullosa (1954-)--to create spaces of resistance to the hierarchichal, patriarchal structures of Mexican society. ... Foregrounding the representation of gender, their literary production forms part of a broader project of both male and female writers and intellectuals in Mexico to open up the traditional social structures and the systems of cultural production. In this process, a variety of discourses including politics, economics, religion, 'official' history, consumerism, and mass media, are signaled as directly or indirectly impinging upon the individual's self-identity and intimate relationships. Alternative perspectives of the perception and positioning of individual social subjects--especially women--within a Mexican society in transition are formulated. … Boullosa's theater and fiction create worlds full of fantasy, mixing 'high' and popular cultural forms in a self-reflective parodic style, and a feminist political aesthetization of traditionally nonliterary themes. These discursive strategies have given this group of writers tools for a rewriting of Mexican sociocultural context and history, and for a renewal of current Mexican cultural production.

1. Susan Rita Wehling, Feminist discourse in Latin American women playwrights (Rosario Castellanos, Carmen Boullosa, Beatriz Mosquera, Isidora Aguirre, Mexico, Argentina, Chile), PhD, UNIVERSITY OF CINCINNATI, 1992, 290 pages. 9232394